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Witch Trials Weekly: February 1692

0 Comments | This entry was posted on Apr 04 2014

Witch Trials Weekly: Video 5, February 12th through February 18th

Church Control

Witch Trials Weekly: Video 6, February 19th through February 25th

The First Examinations


Witch Trials Weekly: Video 7, February 26th through March 3rd

Diagnosis, Witch Cake, and the Spread of the Evil Hand

Witch Trials Weekly: January 1692

0 Comments | This entry was posted on Feb 13 2014

Meet the Author & Book Signing – Marilynne K. Roach

0 Comments | This entry was posted on Jul 31 2013

six-women_0 Six Women of Salem: The Untold Story of the Accused and their Accusers in the Salem Witch Trials

Date:                            October 3, 2013

Time:                          6:00 pm – 7:00 pm

Admission:                   Free

For reservations email: faq@salemwitchmuseum.com

Or call:                          978.744.1692

Where:                         Salem Witch Museum

19 ½ Washington Square North

Salem, MA  01970

In Six Women of Salem: The Untold Story of the Accused and their Accusers in the Salem Witch Trials, author and historian, Marilynne K. Roach chronicles the lives of six specific women involved in the witch hunt who represent the accusers, the accused, or both, and uses their unique stories to illuminate the larger crisis of the trials. Roach works to reconstruct the events of the trials, bringing to life this representative group of women, and examines the entire experience of the Salem Witch Trials through the eyes of those who lived through the hysteria and delivers a historically intimate narrative that gives readers a front row seat to this desperate and dangerous time in history.

Marilynne K. Roach works as both a historian and illustrator. Her illustrations, how-to articles, and travel pieces have been featured in the Boston Globe. She’s lectured to groups ranging in age from kindergarteners to senior citizens, and is the author of the classic The Salem Witch Trials: A Day-by-Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege.

What can we learn from American Muslims?

0 Comments | This entry was posted on Jul 13 2013

Last year Kemal Argon, a contributor to Huffington Post, wondered What Can The Salem Witch Museum Teach American Muslims? . Yet this spring after the Boston Marathon bombing a few of our staff, reeling with the aftermath of the horrific events so close to home and family, expressed apprehension about discussing religious, cultural, sexual, gender and racial tolerance in our second exhibit.

tolerance-word-cloud-ii

Fear  +  Trigger  = Scapegoat

Our second exhibit Witches Evolving Perceptions looks at the evolution of folklore and stereotypes that lead to scapegoating, especially of those accused of witchcraft in Essex County 1692.  The formula for a witch hunt fits to explain other scapegoating events, for example the McCarthy hearings in the United States in the 1950’s.

Salem 1692

Fear:  God/Devil

Trigger:  Dr. Griggs

Scapegoats:  150 Townspeople

Japanese-American Internment 1942

Fear:  Imperial Japan

Trigger:  Pearl Harbor

Scapegoats:  100,000 +/- Japanese Americans put in internment camps

McCarthyism  ~1950-1956

Fear:  Communism

Trigger:  HUAC / Senator Joseph McCarthy

Scapegoats:  Blacklisted citizens

AIDS Epidemic Outbreak  1980’s

Fear:  Infection

Trigger: HIV/AIDS

Scapegoats:  Gay community

There are many other examples of witch hunting in the United States and elsewhere in the world throughout history.  Using the formula, it could be said that the treatment of law abiding Muslim-Americans as terrorists in a post-9/11 environment certainly follows.

When the Boston Marathon bombing occurred this spring, one unforeseen result was that tourists visiting the city were rerouted elsewhere, including to Salem; the Salem Witch Museum hosted several unscheduled tour groups, even as the Boston police were chasing down the suspects, and most people in the area were single-minded in their concern.   It was a surreal day where citizens of the metro Boston area were unified in prayer of sorts, while political and social tensions were escalating.

A couple members of our staff struggled with discussing tolerance in our second exhibit that day.  While there were those who felt that Muslims as a whole should not be allowed to immigrate to the United States, others believed that this was the precisely the time to hold fast to our commitment to teach the lessons of intolerance.

To address the conflict, staff members researched various media for a broad sample of opinions on the subject of Muslims in America:  some pro, some con.  We realized that this complicated issue brought to mind the very real conflict between our moral ideals and our naturally occurring human fears and prejudices.  Today as much as in 1692.

We found the research and following discussions somewhat unsatisfying, as none of the opinions expressed were coming from the very people whose presence in our midst we were examining.  Museum director, Tina Jordan, reached out to our Education Director Emerita, Alison D’Amario, to help us get a more personal view of the issue.  Alison has taught English  at the Immigrant Learning Center, Malden, MA through which she’s been afforded a genuine  familiarity with – unedited by mass media –  the daily lives and stories of people, including Muslims, who have decided to live in the United States.

. . . . . to be continued. . . . .

In part II, we’ll recap a moving evening of discussion on the topic of the treatment of Muslims in the Boston area after the fateful marathon bombing of this spring.

Chronology of the 1692 Salem Witch Trials

0 Comments | This entry was posted on Jun 11 2013

calendar

Chronology

1692

January 20

Betty Parris, Reverend Parris’ nine year old daughter, falls ill.  Soon, other girls in Salem Village are likewise “afflicted.”

Mid-February

D. William Griggs, village physician, decides that the girls are bewitched.

February 25

On the advice of Mary Sibley, a member of Parris’ congregation, Tituba and John Indian, Parris’ servants, bake a witch cake to persuade the girls to reveal the names of those who are bewitching them.

February 29

Warrants are issued for the arrests of Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba, named by the afflicted girls.

March 1

Tituba, Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne are examined in the meeting house in Salem Village by Magistrates John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin.  Only Tituba confesses.

March 19

Abigail Williams accuses Rebecca Nurse of witchcraft.

March 24

Rebecca Nurse is examined before Magistrates John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin.

April 11

Elizabeth Proctor and Sarah Cloyce (Rebecca Nurse’s sister) are examined in Salem Town.  John Proctor is accused and later imprisoned.

May 4

Rev. George Burroughs is arrested in Wells, Maine.

May 10

Sarah Osborne dies in prison in Boston.

May 14

Increase Mather returns from England with a new charter and a new governor, Sir William Phips.

May 27

The Court of Oyer and Terminer is established to try witchcraft cases.  Its members are:  Lieutenant Governor William Stoughton, Nathaniel Saltonstall, Bartholomew Gedney, Peter Sergeant, Samuel Sewall, Wait Still Winthrop, John Richards, John Hathorne, and Jonathan Corwin.  Sometime after June 2 Nathaniel Saltonstall resigns from the court, dissatisfied with its proceedings.

June 2

Bridget Bishop is tried and condemned at the first sitting of the court in Salem.

June 10

Bridget Bishop is executed on Gallows Hill in Salem.

June 15

Twelve ministers of the colony advise the court not to rely entirely on spectral evidence to obtain convictions.

July 19

Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, Sarah Good, and Sarah Wildes are executed on Gallows Hill.  Sarah Good tells Rev. Noyes that if she is hanged he will have blood to drink.  Tradition says that twenty-five years later, Noyes died of a hemorrhage of the throat.

August 19

George Jacobs, Martha Carrier, George Burroughs, John Proctor and John Willard are hanged.  Although George Burroughs recited the Lord’s Prayer perfectly on the gallows, Cotton Mather insisted that, “…the Devil has often been transformed into an Angel of Light.”

September 19

Giles Corey is pressed to death for refusing to stand trial.

September 22

Martha Corey, Margaret Scott, Mary Easty (sister of Rebecca Nurse and Sarah Cloyce), Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Wilmott Redd, Samuel Wardwell, and Mary Parker are hanged on Gallows Hill.

October 3

Increase Mather addresses a meeting of ministers in Cambridge to warn against reliance on spectral evidence.  “It were better that ten suspected witches should escape than one innocent person should be condemned…”

October 29

Gov. Phips dissolves the Court of Oyer and Terminer.

November 25

A Superior Court tries to the remaining witchcraft cases.

1693

January 3-13

The new Superior Court condemns three of the fifty-six persons accused of witchcraft.  Chief Justice Stoughton signs death warrants for those three and for five others condemned in 1692.

January 31

William Stoughton leaves the court after Gov. Phips reprieves the eight Stoughton had condemned.

May

Governor Phips pardons those still imprisoned on the charge of witchcraft.

1694

Witchcraft is no longer an actionable legal offense in Massachusetts Bay Colony

January 1696

Twelve of the jurors of the Court of Oyer and Terminer sign a statement of contrition.

1696-97

Joseph Green, the new minister of Salem Village, tries to bring peace and reconciliation to his parishioners by seating the families of the accusers and accused together in his church.

January 13, 1697

A day of “prayer with fasting” is observed to ask God to “…pardon all the errors of His Servants.”  Judge Samuel Sewall declares his feelings of “blame and shame” and asks God to pardon his sins.

1697

Samuel Parris resigns from the ministry of Salem Village and moves to Boston.

1702

The General Court declares the witchcraft procedure, especially the use of spectral evidence, to be unlawful.

August 1706

Ann Putnam stands in church while Rev. Joseph Green reads her statement repenting her role in the witchcraft trials.

1709

Twenty-one survivors and their families petition the court for redress of the loss of their civil rights and property.

October 1711

The General Court reverses the attainders (loss of civil rights) of those victims whose survivors had so petitioned.  Gov. Dudley never signs the petition.

1711

Supervised by Stephen Sewall, five hundred seventy-eight English pounds are distributed to the survivors and families.  Amounts of restitution vary.

By 1711

The Province of Massachusetts Bay becomes one of the few governments ever to voluntarily compensate persons who had been victimized by its own policies.

August 28, 1957

A General Court Resolve in favor of “Ann Pudeator and certain others” absolves their descendants of their burden of guilt and shame.  The Resolve states that the accused may have been tried illegally.

October 31, 2001

Governor Jane M. Swift of Massachusetts amends the 1957 resolve to include Ann Pudeator, Bridget Bishop, Susannah Martin, Alice Parker, and Wilmott Redd.

Sarah Hood Bassett (1657-1721)

0 Comments | This entry was posted on May 08 2013

accused-of-witchcraft-in-1692 Visitors whose ancestors were involved in the Salem witch trials often ask us to point their  investigations in the right direction.  There are online ancestry resources, document transcripts and historic narratives that can provide clues and details of their families’ lives.

Research uncovers so many captivating human stories.  In this case Peter helps a descendent of Sarah Basset:

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

By Peter Murphy

Sarah Hood Bassett was born in August of 1657 in Lynn, Essex County, Massachusetts to Richard Hood and Mary Newhall.  In her eighteenth year, on October 25, 1675 she married William Bassett, Jr., who was the brother of Elizabeth Bassett Proctor, wife of John Proctor.  Both John and Elizabeth Proctor were accused and tried for witchcraft; John was hanged on August 19th, 1692, whereas Elizabeth escaped persecution due to her pregnancy.  Their daughter, Sarah Proctor, was also accused of witchcraft at age 16 on the same day as her aunt Sarah Bassett.  Thomas Putnam and John Putnam, Jr. issued this complaint on May 21, 1692, exactly one month after the examination of Mary Warren (John and Elizabeth Proctor’s hired girl) who claimed Elizabeth Proctor administered an ointment to her which she received from “Mrs. Bassits of Linn.”

Only two days after the Putnam’s complaint against Sarah Basset she was brought to jail in Boston on May 23, 1692, where she remained until her release on December 3, 1692.  One month after her release another indictment was issued for afflicting Mary Walcott, but was returned “ignoramus,” meaning the charges were ignored due to lack of evidence.

Not long after the ordeal was over, Sarah gave birth to a daughter whom she named Deliverance as an ode to her freedom.  Sarah Bassett died at age 64 in 1721.

While no burial record exists, I have theorized that she may be buried in the Western Burial Ground in Lynn, Massachusetts.  This was the only operational burial ground in the town at the time of her death with the exception of a Lynnfield burial ground opened in 1720, but where the oldest inscription dates only back to 1723.  Further evidence that may lend itself to my hypothesis is the fact that Lynn’s Western Burial Ground contains 19th Century graves sporting Sarah’s married name – Bassett – and her mother’s maiden name – Newhall.

Sources:

Ancestry.com          Connection between Proctor and Nurse Families

New England Historic Genealogical Society          Hunting for Salem “Witches” in Your Family Tree

Records of the Salem Witch Hunt , Bernard Rosenthal General Editor

The Salem Witch Trials: A Day-By-Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege,  Marilynne K. Roach

Marilynne Roach Signs Copies of Day-By-Day Chronicle

0 Comments | This entry was posted on Apr 23 2013

We have the privilege of working closely with historian Marilynne Roach on many projects.  She answers nuanced questions about the Salem witch trials, helping our staff interpret the underpinnings of the events, and is a perpetual inspiration in understanding what can be learned from Essex County’s 1692 experience.

If you don’t yet own a copy of The Salem Witch Trials:  A Day-By-Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege, now is your chance to get one of 20 remaining signed copies of the book.

In our shop or online, while supplies last!

marilynne-signing-books

Salem Witch Trials Booklist

0 Comments | This entry was posted on Jan 17 2013

salem-possessed

*Many resources are available from our online bookstore.

Current Sources:

Boyer, Paul and Nissenbaum, Stephen.  Salem Possessed.

Demos, John.  Entertaining Satan.

Hall, David.  Witch Hunting in 17th Century New England

Hansen, Chadwick. Witchcraft in Salem.

Hill, Frances.  A Delusion of Satan.

Hill, Frances.  The Salem Witch Trials Reader.

Hoffer, Peter Charles.  The Salem Witch Trials, A Legal History.

Karlsen, Carol.  The Devil in the Shape of a Woman.

Mappen, Marc.  Witches and Historians.

Norton, Mary Beth.  In The Devil’s Snare.

Richardson, Katherine.  The Salem Witch Trials.

Roach, Marilynne. The Salem Witch Trials, A Day by Day Chronicle.

Robinson, Enders.  The Devil Discovered.

Rosenthal, Bernard.   Salem Story.

Starkey, Marion.  The Devil in Massachusetts.

Primary Sources: records-of-the-salem-witch-hunt

Rosenthal, Bernard, ed.  Records of the Salem Witch-Hunt

Boyer, Paul and Nissenbaum, Stephen.  Salem Village Witchcraft.

Trask, Richard, ed.  The Devil Hath Been Raised.

Related Works:

Breslaw, Elaine.  Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem.

Demos, John.  The Enemy Within

Hill, Frances.  Hunting for Witches, A Visitor’s Guide.

Miller, Arthur.  The Crucible.

Tapley, Charles.  Rebecca Nurse, Saint but Witch Victim.

Roach, Marilynne.  Gallows and Graves.

Russell, Jeffrey.  A History of Witchcraft.

Weisman, Richard.  Witchcraft, Magic and Religion in

17th Century New England.

For Young Readers: swt-unsolved-mystery

Aronson, Marc.  Witch-Hunt (young adult)

Duble,Kathleen. The Sacrifice (grades 5-8)

Jackson, Shirley.  The Witchcraft of Salem Village (grades 5-6)

Rinaldi, Ann.  A Break with Charity. Fiction (grades 6-8)

Stern, Steven.  Witchcraft in Salem . (grades 4-6)

Yolen, Jane. The Salem Witch Trials, An Unsolved Mystery

Maps:

A Map of Salem Village & Vicinity in 1692

This map shows Salem Village, primary location of the Salem

witch trials history, as it looked in 1692.  Sites of houses and public

buildings are noted.  The map is drawn by Marilynne Roach, a

Salem witch trials expert.

Videos:

Three Sovereigns for Sarah

A partly fictional account of the trials focusing on the three

Towne sisters, two of whom were hanged.  The production

was filmed at locations connected with the trials.        2 1/2 hrs

Days of Judgment:  The Salem Witch Trials of 1692

A film designed for school and home viewing that answers

many of the questions raised by the trials.                    1 hour

The Crucible

The 1995 film version of Arthur Miller’s play.  Screen play by the author.

Filmed on location in Essex County.                            2 hours

Guests From Sister City, Ota Japan Visit Salem Today

0 Comments | This entry was posted on Aug 02 2012
ota_japan For many years the Salem Witch Museum has welcomed an annual tour group from Ota, JapanThrough a sister-city relationship beginning in 1991, hundreds of teachers and students as well as business, cultural and government officials have visited Salem from Ota.

The family of our own Will Parr is extending their hospitality on a very personal level by hosting a “Homestay” student in coordination with the Salem-Ota Club.

For more information about our sister city check out the City of Salem website:

http://www.salem.com/Pages/SalemMA_Council/ota

The Salem Witch Museum offers our main presentation translated into Japanese as well as 7 other languages.

ota-japan-group

What Happened to Abigail Williams?

0 Comments | This entry was posted on Jan 16 2012

crucible-book On Friday during a Skype in the Classroom “virtual museum tour,” a student at Oliver Street School in Newark, New Jersey – whose class is studying Arthur Miller’s The Crucible – asked what happened to the real Abigail Williams after the trials.

While Wikipedia can offer information on a wide array of subjects, there is no reason to accept the undocumented assertion that Abigail fled after the trials, becoming a prostitute.  Reliable Salem witch trials scholars are unable to give detail about her last years with any certainty, but Marilynne Roach says in The Salem Witch Trials:  A Day-By-Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege, “…Abigail Williams, haunted to the end, apparently died before the end of 1697, if not sooner, no older than seventeen.” (page 518)

According to a biographical essay published on the University of Virginia Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project:

Even though Abigail played a major role as an accuser at the beginning of the trials, especially in March, April, and May, she gave her last testimony on June 3rd 1692. There is no historical documentation suggesting why Abigail virtually disappeared from the court hearings. In addition, there are no records indicating what happened to Abigail after the events of 1692. It is suggested that she never married and died a single woman, but without any evidence we will never be quite certain.