Archive for June, 2013:
Betty Parris, Reverend Parris’ nine year old daughter, falls ill. Soon, other girls in Salem Village are likewise “afflicted.”
D. William Griggs, village physician, decides that the girls are bewitched.
On the advice of Mary Sibley, a member of Parris’ congregation, Tituba and John Indian, Parris’ servants, bake a witch cake to persuade the girls to reveal the names of those who are bewitching them.
Warrants are issued for the arrests of Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba, named by the afflicted girls.
Tituba, Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne are examined in the meeting house in Salem Village by Magistrates John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin. Only Tituba confesses.
Abigail Williams accuses Rebecca Nurse of witchcraft.
Rebecca Nurse is examined before Magistrates John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin.
Elizabeth Proctor and Sarah Cloyce (Rebecca Nurse’s sister) are examined in Salem Town. John Proctor is accused and later imprisoned.
Rev. George Burroughs is arrested in Wells, Maine.
Sarah Osborne dies in prison in Boston.
Increase Mather returns from England with a new charter and a new governor, Sir William Phips.
The Court of Oyer and Terminer is established to try witchcraft cases. Its members are: Lieutenant Governor William Stoughton, Nathaniel Saltonstall, Bartholomew Gedney, Peter Sergeant, Samuel Sewall, Wait Still Winthrop, John Richards, John Hathorne, and Jonathan Corwin. Sometime after June 2 Nathaniel Saltonstall resigns from the court, dissatisfied with its proceedings.
Bridget Bishop is tried and condemned at the first sitting of the court in Salem.
Bridget Bishop is executed on Gallows Hill in Salem.
Twelve ministers of the colony advise the court not to rely entirely on spectral evidence to obtain convictions.
Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, Sarah Good, and Sarah Wildes are executed on Gallows Hill. Sarah Good tells Rev. Noyes that if she is hanged he will have blood to drink. Tradition says that twenty-five years later, Noyes died of a hemorrhage of the throat.
George Jacobs, Martha Carrier, George Burroughs, John Proctor and John Willard are hanged. Although George Burroughs recited the Lord’s Prayer perfectly on the gallows, Cotton Mather insisted that, “…the Devil has often been transformed into an Angel of Light.”
Giles Corey is pressed to death for refusing to stand trial.
Martha Corey, Margaret Scott, Mary Easty (sister of Rebecca Nurse and Sarah Cloyce), Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Wilmott Redd, Samuel Wardwell, and Mary Parker are hanged on Gallows Hill.
Increase Mather addresses a meeting of ministers in Cambridge to warn against reliance on spectral evidence. “It were better that ten suspected witches should escape than one innocent person should be condemned…”
Gov. Phips dissolves the Court of Oyer and Terminer.
A Superior Court tries to the remaining witchcraft cases.
The new Superior Court condemns three of the fifty-six persons accused of witchcraft. Chief Justice Stoughton signs death warrants for those three and for five others condemned in 1692.
William Stoughton leaves the court after Gov. Phips reprieves the eight Stoughton had condemned.
Governor Phips pardons those still imprisoned on the charge of witchcraft.
Witchcraft is no longer an actionable legal offense in Massachusetts Bay Colony
Twelve of the jurors of the Court of Oyer and Terminer sign a statement of contrition.
Joseph Green, the new minister of Salem Village, tries to bring peace and reconciliation to his parishioners by seating the families of the accusers and accused together in his church.
January 13, 1697
A day of “prayer with fasting” is observed to ask God to “…pardon all the errors of His Servants.” Judge Samuel Sewall declares his feelings of “blame and shame” and asks God to pardon his sins.
Samuel Parris resigns from the ministry of Salem Village and moves to Boston.
The General Court declares the witchcraft procedure, especially the use of spectral evidence, to be unlawful.
Ann Putnam stands in church while Rev. Joseph Green reads her statement repenting her role in the witchcraft trials.
Twenty-one survivors and their families petition the court for redress of the loss of their civil rights and property.
The General Court reverses the attainders (loss of civil rights) of those victims whose survivors had so petitioned. Gov. Dudley never signs the petition.
Supervised by Stephen Sewall, five hundred seventy-eight English pounds are distributed to the survivors and families. Amounts of restitution vary.
The Province of Massachusetts Bay becomes one of the few governments ever to voluntarily compensate persons who had been victimized by its own policies.
August 28, 1957
A General Court Resolve in favor of “Ann Pudeator and certain others” absolves their descendants of their burden of guilt and shame. The Resolve states that the accused may have been tried illegally.
October 31, 2001
Governor Jane M. Swift of Massachusetts amends the 1957 resolve to include Ann Pudeator, Bridget Bishop, Susannah Martin, Alice Parker, and Wilmott Redd.